S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Based on a summary of data from domestic and international studies, the definition and criteria of arterial hypotension are given, and a classification of physiological and pathological hypotension is presented. Hemodynamic changes underlying the onset of orthostatic hypotension, clinical manifestations of orthostatic instability are considered, syndromes and diseases leading to autonomic failure are classified. The orthostatic instability syndromes are presented in accordance with the current recommendations of the experts of the European Society of Cardiology. Methods for the assessment of hemodynamic parameters used to diagnose orthostasis-associated conditions are described, and clinical examples are given. The measures for the prevention of hypotensive conditions are determined in accordance with the current views of experts in this field.
arterial hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, autonomic failure, postural tachycardia syndrome, prolonged passive orthostatic test (tilt test), test with active orthostasis, prevention of hypotensive conditions.
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